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Means of Introduction
The introduction of zebra and quagga mussels from Europe to North America appears to be the result of ballast water discharge from transoceanic ships that were carrying veligers, juveniles, or adult mussels. The overland dispersal has been facilitated by the construction of artificial waterways and irrigation channels. Three inland invasive migration corridors, distinguished in Europe, have been probably used by zebra and quagga mussels: northern corridor (Volga - Lake Beloye - Lake Onega - Lake Ladoga - Neva - Baltic Sea); central corridor (connecting the rivers Dnieper - Vistula - Oder - Elbe - Rhine) and southern corridor (the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal). The introduction of quagga mussel from the Black Sea basin into the Caspian region has most likely occurred via commercial shipping through the Volga - Don Canal. There are other factors that can aid in the spread of the two species across continental water basins, such as: larval drift in river systems as well as recreational and commercial fishing, boating and fish-farming activities.

This website is developed with support from the Bulgarian Science Fund, Ministry of Education, Youth and Science,
within the Project "Assessment and Management of Dreissena spp. Invasions in the Bulgarian Water Bodies",
Contract Number: DO-02-283/2008.

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